Microstructural Parcellation Of The Human Cerebral Cortex

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Microstructural Parcellation Of The Human Cerebral Cortex


Microstructural Parcellation Of The Human Cerebral Cortex
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Microstructural Parcellation Of The Human Cerebral Cortex


Microstructural Parcellation Of The Human Cerebral Cortex
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Author : Stefan Geyer
language : en
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-07-04

Microstructural Parcellation Of The Human Cerebral Cortex written by Stefan Geyer and has been published by Springer Science & Business Media this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2013-07-04 with Medical categories.


Unraveling the functional properties of structural elements in the brain is one of the fundamental goals of neuroscientific research. In the cerebral cortex this is no mean feat, since cortical areas are defined microstructurally in post-mortem brains but functionally in living brains with electrophysiological or neuroimaging techniques – and cortical areas vary in their topographical properties across individual brains. Being able to map both microstructure and function in the same brains noninvasively in vivo would represent a huge leap forward. In recent years, high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies with spatial resolution below 0.5 mm have set the stage for this by detecting structural differences within the human cerebral cortex, beyond the Stria of Gennari. This provides the basis for an in vivo microanatomical brain map, with the enormous potential to make direct correlations between microstructure and function in living human brains. This book starts with Brodmann’s post-mortem map published in the early 20th century, moves on to the almost forgotten microstructural maps of von Economo and Koskinas and the Vogt-Vogt school, sheds some light on more recent approaches that aim at mapping cortical areas noninvasively in living human brains, and culminates with the concept of “in vivo Brodmann mapping” using high-field MRI, which was introduced in the early 21st century.

Connectivity Driven Parcellation Methods For The Human Cerebral Cortex


Connectivity Driven Parcellation Methods For The Human Cerebral Cortex
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Author : Salim Arslan
language : en
Publisher: Salim Arslan
Release Date : 2017-11-01

Connectivity Driven Parcellation Methods For The Human Cerebral Cortex written by Salim Arslan and has been published by Salim Arslan this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2017-11-01 with Computers categories.


The macro connectome elucidates the pathways through which brain regions are structurally connected or functionally coupled to perform cognitive functions. It embodies the notion of representing, analysing, and understanding all connections within the brain as a network, while the subdivision of the brain into interacting cortical units is inherent in its architecture. As a result, the definition of network nodes is one of the most critical steps in connectivity network analysis. Parcellations derived from anatomical brain atlases or random parcellations are traditionally used for node identification, however these approaches do not always fully reflect the functional/structural organisation of the brain. Connectivity-driven methods have arisen only recently, aiming to delineate parcellations that are more faithful to the underlying connectivity. Such parcellation methods face several challenges, including but not limited to poor signal-to-noise ratio, the curse of dimensionality, and functional/structural variations inherent in individual brains, which are only limitedly addressed by the current state of the art. In this thesis, we present robust and fully-automated methods for the subdivision of the entire human cerebral cortex based on connectivity information. Our contributions are four-fold: First, we propose a clustering approach to delineate a cortical parcellation that provides a reliable abstraction of the brain's functional organisation. Second, we cast the parcellation problem as a feature reduction problem and make use of manifold learning and image segmentation techniques to identify cortical regions with distinct structural connectivity patterns. Third, we present a multi-layer graphical model that combines within- and between-subject connectivity, which is then decomposed into a cortical parcellation that can represent the whole population, while accounting for the variability across subjects. Finally, we conduct a large-scale, systematic comparison of existing parcellation methods, with a focus on providing some insight into the reliability of brain parcellations in terms of reflecting the underlying connectivity, as well as, revealing their impact on network analysis. We evaluate the proposed parcellation methods on publicly available data from the Human Connectome Project and a plethora of quantitative and qualitative evaluation techniques investigated in the literature. Experiments across multiple resolutions demonstrate the accuracy of the presented methods at both subject and group levels with regards to reproducibility and fidelity to the data. The neuro-biological interpretation of the proposed parcellations is also investigated by comparing parcel boundaries with well-structured properties of the cerebral cortex. Results show the advantage of connectivity-driven parcellations over traditional approaches in terms of better fitting the underlying connectivity. However, the benefit of using connectivity to parcellate the brain is not always as clear regarding the agreement with other modalities and simple network analysis tasks carried out across healthy subjects. Nonetheless, we believe the proposed methods, along with the systematic evaluation of existing techniques, offer an important contribution to the field of brain parcellation, advancing our understanding of how the human cerebral cortex is organised at the macroscale.

Brain Mapping


Brain Mapping
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Author :
language : en
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-02-14

Brain Mapping written by and has been published by Academic Press this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2015-02-14 with Science categories.


Brain Mapping: A Comprehensive Reference offers foundational information for students and researchers across neuroscience. With over 300 articles and a media rich environment, this resource provides exhaustive coverage of the methods and systems involved in brain mapping, fully links the data to disease (presenting side by side maps of healthy and diseased brains for direct comparisons), and offers data sets and fully annotated color images. Each entry is built on a layered approach of the content – basic information for those new to the area and more detailed material for experienced readers. Edited and authored by the leading experts in the field, this work offers the most reputable, easily searchable content with cross referencing across articles, a one-stop reference for students, researchers and teaching faculty. Broad overview of neuroimaging concepts with applications across the neurosciences and biomedical research Fully annotated color images and videos for best comprehension of concepts Layered content for readers of different levels of expertise Easily searchable entries for quick access of reputable information Live reference links to ScienceDirect, Scopus and PubMed

Proceedings Of The International School On Magnetic Resonance And Brain Function Xiii Workshop


Proceedings Of The International School On Magnetic Resonance And Brain Function Xiii Workshop
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Author : Itamar Ronen
language : en
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2021-08-19

Proceedings Of The International School On Magnetic Resonance And Brain Function Xiii Workshop written by Itamar Ronen and has been published by Frontiers Media SA this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2021-08-19 with Science categories.




Encyclopedia Of The Neurological Sciences


Encyclopedia Of The Neurological Sciences
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Author :
language : en
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date : 2014-04-29

Encyclopedia Of The Neurological Sciences written by and has been published by Academic Press this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2014-04-29 with Medical categories.


The Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences, Second Edition develops from the first edition, covering all areas of neurological sciences through over 1000 entries focused on a wide variety of topics in neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry and other related areas of neuroscience. The contributing authors represent all aspects of neurology from many viewpoints and disciplines to provide a complete overview of the field. Entries are designed to be understandable without detailed background knowledge in the subject matter, and cross-referencing and suggested further reading lead the reader from a basic knowledge of the subject to more advanced understanding. The easy-to-use 'encyclopedic-dictionary' format of the Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences, Second Edition features alphabetic entries, extensive cross-referencing, and a thorough index for quick reference. The wealth of information provided by these four volumes makes this reference work a trusted source of valuable information for a wide range of researchers, from undergraduate students to academic researchers. Provides comprehensive coverage of the field of neurological science in over 1,000 entries in 4 volumes "Encyclopedic-dictionary" format provides for concise, readable entries and easy searching Presents complete, up-to-date information on 32 separate areas of neurology Entries are supplemented with extensive cross-referencing, useful references to primary research articles, and an extensive index

Island Of Reil Insula In The Human Brain


Island Of Reil Insula In The Human Brain
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Author : Mehmet Turgut
language : en
Publisher: Springer
Release Date : 2018-07-24

Island Of Reil Insula In The Human Brain written by Mehmet Turgut and has been published by Springer this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2018-07-24 with Medical categories.


This book provides an in-depth review of the insula, with emphasis on anatomical, diagnostics, clinical, and surgical features. The insular cortex is involved in a variety of functions, but a comprehensive resource cataloging these functions is not available in the current literature. This book gathers highly informative chapters written and edited by leading international authorities in the field and covers the full range of the insular cortex, approaching it in four main sections: firstly, the embryology and anatomy of the human insula; secondly, the functions of the human insula, including its role in nociception, language, decision making, cognition, emotional awareness etc.; thirdly, clinical disorders related to the insula such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease; and fourthly, surgical techniques for insular gliomas and temporal lobe epilepsy. This comprehensive reference book will be an ideal source for neurosurgeons, neurologists and neuroanatomists seeking both basic and more advanced information regarding this unique structure in the human brain.

Behavior Genetics Of Cognition Across The Lifespan


Behavior Genetics Of Cognition Across The Lifespan
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Author : Deborah Finkel
language : en
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-07-09

Behavior Genetics Of Cognition Across The Lifespan written by Deborah Finkel and has been published by Springer Science & Business Media this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2013-07-09 with Psychology categories.


Along with psychopathology, cognition has been one of the primary phenotypic focal points of the field of behavior genetics since its inception. Francis Galton’s 1874 examination of eminent families in Britain was among the earliest attempts to investigate whether cognitive achievements run in families. This volume presents current methodologies for understanding cognitive abilities that move beyond the outdated nature vs. nurture paradigm. Recent advances in both collection and statistical modeling of twin data, particularly longitudinal twin data, make this an especially advantageous moment to produce a work that presents a collection of the groundbreaking research on cognitive abilities across the lifespan. This volume presents an overview of the current state of quantitative and molecular genetic investigations into the many facets of cognitive performance and functioning across the lifespan.​